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Equitable estoppel is a defensive doctrine preventing one party from taking unfair advantage of another when, through false language or conduct, the person to be estopped has induced another person to act in a certain way, which resulted in the other person being injured in some way. This doctrine is founded on principles of fraud. It prevents one party from taking a different position at trial than s/he did at an earlier time if the other party would be harmed by the change. Generally, the elements that need to be proved are:

  • There must be a representation or concealment of material facts.
  • These facts must be known at the time of the representation to the party being estopped.
  • The party claiming the benefit of the estoppel must not know the truth concerning these facts at the time of the representation.
  • The representation must be made with the intention or the expectation that it will be acted upon.
  • The representation must be relied upon and acted upon.
  • The party acting upon the representation must do so to his or her detriment.

Equitable estoppel is also termed as estoppel by conduct or estoppel in pais.